Sparse non-negative super-resolution - simplified and stabilised

Abstract

Abstract The convolution of a discrete measure, x “ řk i“1 aiδti , with a local window function, φps ́ tq, is a common model for a measurement device whose resolution is substantially lower than that of the objects being observed. Super-resolution concerns localising the point sources tai, tiui“1 with an accuracy beyond the essential support of φps ́ tq, typically from m samples ypsjq “ řk i“1 aiφpsj ́ tiq ` ηj , where ηj indicates an inexactness in the sample value. We consider the setting of x being non-negative and seek to characterise all non-negative measures approximately consistent with the samples. We first show that x is the unique non-negative measure consistent with the samples provided the samples are exact, i.e. ηj “ 0, m ě 2k`1 samples are available, and φps ́tq generates a Chebyshev system. This is independent of how close the sample locations are and does not rely on any regulariser beyond non-negativity; as such, it extends and clarifies the work by Schiebinger et al. in [1] and De Castro et al. in [2], who achieve the same results but require a total variation regulariser, which we show is unnecessary. Moreover, we characterise non-negative solutions x̂ consistent with the samples within the bound řm j“1 η 2 j ď δ. Any such non-negative measure is within Opδ1{7q of the discrete measure x generating the samples in the generalised Wasserstein distance. Similarly, we show using somewhat different techniques that the integrals of x̂ and x over pti ́ , ti ` q are similarly close, converging to one another as and δ approach zero. We also show how to make these general results, for windows that form a Chebyshev system, precise for the case of φps ́ tq being a Gaussian window. The main innovation of these results is that non-negativity alone is sufficient to localise point sources beyond the essential sensor resolution and that, while regularisers such as total variation might be particularly effective, they are not required in the non-negative setting.

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